News for October 2009
Lights, Camera, Action! 45
A look at the structure of Warhammer Fantasy Roleplay scenes and episodes
Warhammer Fantasy Roleplay | Published 12 October 2009

One of the big attractions to roleplaying games is the ability to tell an interesting, engrossing story in a fictional setting. Often, these stories revolve around the players’ characters and their decisions and actions in the game setting. Tying these storylines together into larger, cohesive units is the basis for campaign play – dovetailing numerous stories, encounters, and adventures into a living history of the characters’ deeds and actions.

Events in Warhammer Fantasy Roleplay unfold and are resolved in a variety of ways. The method used is based on what is being done, the amount of time the events generally consume, and how they affect the advancement of the story. The largest units used to measure events are campaigns and adventures – most often fully developed storylines that can span several sessions.A Meeting of the Minds

Story Mode & Encounter Mode

Within a particular session, events occur in either story mode or encounter mode. These are broad terms used to define a certain type of gameplay the GM can expect for a particular story element (as well as help the GM quickly scan and interpret information found in published adventures).

Story mode is used when the story’s focus is “zoomed out.” When actions are not being presented with significant conflicts, they can be resolved in story mode in a broad manner as if described by a narrator. If an event advances the story, but its individual details can be resolved with little resistance or conflict, or if the order in which they are resolved is of little consequence, it is best to manage these actions in story mode. During story mode, the order in which actions are resolved is generally less important, and characters are assumed to have sufficient time to attempt the tasks and actions they’re proposing.

When the GM or players wish to “zoom in” the story’s focus, the game is resolved using encounter mode. Encounter mode is useful when actions are being opposed, when resolving the order of events is important, or when the players wish to more fully roleplay the reactions and decisions of their characters when timing may be an issue.

Plot-Driven Episodes

Often, significant events being resolved in encounter mode are presented as an episode. Episode is the game term used to define the “framework” in which connected scenes or activities get resolved. Actions are resolved during encounter mode round by round. The events and their outcomes may occur simultaneously, but mechanically the players describe their characters’ actions, roll dice, and with the help of the GM, interpret the results to explain how the scene resolves.

Episodes are specific, over-arching events and activities that make up a story. They tend to have a fairly specific focus, a goal to be resolved, or a common theme tying the events together. In a movie, it is easy to identify individual episodes. When the camera cuts away to a new location or the characters finish chasing someone or examining a crime scene or hacking their way through a jungle and begin a new course of action, it generally signals the transition into a new scene. Or in WFRP’s case, an episode. The same is true during a game session. When the focus of the story changes, and the characters adjust their goals or the immediate objectives change, the game transitions into a new episode.

The Classic Three Act Structure

An adventure’s episodes are composed of building blocks called acts. Episodes in Warhammer Fantasy Roleplay often make use of a classic three-act structure. This three-act structure is often seen in plays, with a rising action, a climax, and a falling action. In the classic format, the first act sets up the dramatic tension, the second act fulfils the tension, and the third act offers resolution. The third act may often become a springboard for the next encounter. Resolving the events of the previous act may reveal new clues and concerns which link back into the adventure or campaign, moving the larger plots along.

Specifically, an act is a single goal or action within the larger episode. If the characters are pursuing a fleeing band of cultists, that could be the overarching episode. It is part of the larger storyline, the characters’ attempts to shut down the cult once and for all. But within that episode there are several clear activities with finite goals and durations. The individual steps of the pursuit are the acts that comprise the episode.

Within the context of the over-arching episode, if the cultists disappear into an old abandoned temple and the characters go in after them, searching the temple can be treated as a single act. Confronting the cultists down in the cellar storeroom becomes a separate, second act. Chasing the cultists through an unstable building that collapses all around them could be the third dramatic act in this linked series of action. All three of these acts are part of the larger episode, but each act has a tighter focus, a narrower setting, and often its own separate set of immediate goals.

The Relentless UndeadThe Rally Step

An easily overlooked element to the episode structure is the transition between the acts. In game terms, this interval is known as a rally step. These are key elements to the pacing and resolution of the story. It is a momentary lull in the action, a deliberate pause from the frenetic pace of the encounter, a “commercial break” from the current episode.

The rally step is when characters and players alike can catch their breath. In-game, it is a chance for characters to reorient, rearm, and refocus – the PCs have a brief respite, just enough time to bind a wound, draw a sword, notch an arrow, and prepare for what comes next. In out-of-character terms it is the pause for bathroom breaks, drink refills, nagging rules questions, and off-topic asides.

Without a rally step, there’s a risk that scenes become muddled and flow into one another without distinction. That may sound good from a pacing standpoint – keep the energy flowing, the story rolling, and the characters running, so the adrenaline stays high and everyone stays focused.

Without well-timed pauses, however, everything may start to blur together. Soon the characters (and players) will have a hard time focusing on anything at all. The mind needs a break from a long sequence of action and danger. The players need a minute to look around and realise just how scary things are, otherwise they become less affected by the terror. Without a brief respite, it is hard to experience the same dramatic highs and lows. The scene transitions provide an opportunity to restore that perspective, which allows the GM to ratchet the action back up again once the next act begins.

These transitions are also useful character tools from a mechanical and narrative angle. They give the players a chance to adjust their characters, reacting to the end of the previous act while readying themselves for the next act. There’s rarely time in the middle of the action to work out a plan, but a rally step is that brief moment where the characters catch their breath… or enemy forces glare menacingly at each other, waiting for the other side to act first.

Why Use a Structured Approach?

A lot of roleplayers already use similar story structure in their own games. In a lot of ways, this sort of structure comes naturally when telling a story. There are breaks, pauses, changes of scenery, and different parts of the story being focused on at different times. By providing a consistent set of terms and guidelines for how these elements are used in Warhammer Fantasy Roleplay, it becomes even easier for a GM to find ways to use these to enhance his adventures and campaigns.

The use of the episode and act structure results in a great deal of flexibility for the GM. First, it helps provide a consistent structure and means to develop encounters, allowing the GM to pace stories more effectively and keep the characters engaged. Second, it provides a sort of mental checklist for the GM, to make sure different facts of his story are involved, and allows him to approach session prep in easily managed bite-size chunks. Finally, the use of this story structure makes it easy for GMs to get the feel for the pace and organisation of the action provided in published adventures that present information using this approach.

And with this structure defined, it's easier to design and integrate mechanics that work off these different elements. For example, there are some special actions that can be used during the rally steps to take advantage of the brief respite offered. Likewise, different events or effect durations may be tied to the progress of a scene or act, streamlining effects and reducing book-keeping for the GM.

Events and Actions Outside of Episodes

Does this mean that all events that occur in encounter mode are part of a larger episode broken down into individual acts? Not at all. Some scenes simply do not need that level of detail or that sense of building tensions and anticipation. The episode term and structure are merely guidelines to help provide some structure when warranted. There are several questions the GM can ask himself when considering whether to run a scene as an episode.

Question 1: How long is this encounter? If a character wanders into a shop to buy a new pair of boots, how much time does he spend doing that? A few minutes? Is there enough time during this transaction to accommodate a formal structure? Not really. Not if he goes in, selects a pair of boots, pays for them, and leaves. Even if there is some haggling involved or dialogue with an NPC, if it is a simple transaction, it does not warrant more than some roleplaying or perhaps a skill check to resolve.

A Simple Conversation May Occur in Story ModeQuestion 2: Does the scene have any real stakes involved? The dramatic impact is also a factor. Buying new boots is a mundane activity. Unless something out of the ordinary occurs, it has very little dramatic impact on the story. In this case, it is unlikely you will want to use a formal structure, let alone a “zoom in” to use encounter mode.

Question 3: How many characters are involved in the scene? If only one character is involved, you may want to remain in story mode to move things along. This decision can be less about whether the scene feels important than about giving equal time to all your players. However, sometimes the encounter is significant enough, either to the character, to the story, or to both, that it does warrant a more structured approach.

Question 4: Does the act structure feel like a natural fit? Once a GM gets comfortable using the act structure, he’ll develop a sense of when a scene or encounter would benefit from using a more structured approach over a free-form approach. When in doubt, the GM will learn to trust his instincts.

Sample Episodes
The concept of structured episodes and acts to resolve encounters may be quite new to some GMs. Some examples are provided to help showcase this approach.

The Hostage Negotiation

Overview: Someone has been kidnapped or taken hostage, and the characters have to rescue the victim using their heads instead of their sword arms.

Act 1 - Opening Moves: News of the kidnap reaches the characters. The stage is set. The enemy’s demands are made known. This may be a very short act and may play out in story mode. The act ends when the PCs decide where to go to deal with the situation. This leads to the first transition before Act 2 begins.

Act 2 - Tense Negotiations: The characters arrive on the scene. Negotiations begin in earnest. Stakes are raised, tensions mount. A Progress Tracker resolves this scene, with tokens for the negotiation team, the hostage-takers, and potentially for any more direct rescue attempt. This act ends when the negotiator succeeds, the hostage-takers cut off negotiations, or a rescue attempt results in combat. There is a brief pause, allowing everyone to catch their breath, before continuing with Act 3.

Act 3 - The Resolution: The negotiation succeeds or escalates to bloodshed. Can the hostage be saved? Based on the results of Act 2, this act could be as simple as escorting the former hostage to safety or as complex as a rescue mission.

Possible Complications: The kidnapper is extremely powerful and unpredictable (such as a Chaos sorcerer), the kidnapper has nothing to lose (he’ll be hanged if he survives), time is of the essence (the hostage is bleeding and will die unless treated quickly), violence is not an option (the kidnapper is the baron’s son and the baron demands he not be harmed), the hostages don’t want to be rescued.

Skaven Surprise an Unsuspecting PartyThe Ambush

Overview: The party is caught off guard and ambushed by a lurking threat.

Act 1: Blindsided! The characters are blissfully unaware of what’s about to happen. This act starts out in story mode – after all, if they’re asked to roll for initiative, they’ll suspect something is up! Some clues may alert them, or the GM may ask a party member to attempt an Observation check. This act ends either when the trap is sprung (when the PCs enter the kill-zone or the GM decides enough time has passed), or when the PCs detect the would-be-ambushers. This leads to the first transition before Act 2 begins.

Act 2 - The Fight in Earnest: If the PCs failed to detect the ambushers, the attackers could receive some sort of bonus during this act - extra dice on their Initiative checks, faster recharge on their powers, or bonus fortune dice during the early stages of the fight. The GM can set up a progress tracker to monitor how long the ambushers have this advantage. Reaching the end of the progress tracker could be the trigger that transitions the action to Act 3.

Act 3 - A Change of Plans: The fight changes in an important way – perhaps the attackers flee, or their leader reveals himself. The ambush bonus goes away here, as during the previous rally step the PCs had a chance to reorient themselves. Alternately, Act 3 can trigger if the PCs change tactics – perhaps they decide to flee, for example.

Possible Complications: The weather works against the players (heavy rains, sleet), it’s dark and at night, the characters were lured into the ambush and are unsuspecting, the characters are using themselves as bait and hoping to be ambushed.


Set in the grim world of Games Workshop's Warhammer Fantasy universe, Warhammer Fantasy Roleplay is a roleplaying game that sets unlikely heroes on the road to perilous adventure. Players will venture into the dark corners of the Empire, guided by luck and Fate, and challenge the threats that others cannot or will not face.

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Comments (45)

Published: 10/13/2009 3:59:28 PM

 I agree, I see nothing wrong with the way the setup is present, it is easily ignored and any GM worth his salt can build in conditional results based on possible actions that the PC's take. In fact when I write a session up I always but a couple of "If.. Then..." statements in each section. Or, if they really go off wild, I just handle it as it comes. But it never hurts to have a good outline. 

WFRP2E's system is my favorite RPG system, I love it for Rogue Trader and Dark Heresy as well.. but dealing with wounded charaters when the story needs to advance can be an issue. Using a short rest to regain wounds is more cinematic, but not as realistic. I guess you've just got to strike a balance between what you want. 

Published: 10/13/2009 3:11:30 PM

 Thanks for clearing that up Kryyst. 

Published: 10/13/2009 2:49:29 PM


I'm not trying to dispute that it's there.  I specifically mentioned D&D 4.0 because of the similarities.  I wouldn't be surprised at all to see the next diary talk about healing surges.

I'm not sure what you think I'm assuming or not.  The point remains that this article is very much a by the numbers way of staging an adventure.  It's an ideal situation on how to setup the shift from story mode to encounter mode.   There was perhaps a time when I as a GM thought that was important but haven't for years for a couple reasons.  First it's because players (ok my players) never fit into neat story mode or encounter mode anymore.   We just play the game it flows naturally from story to encounter and back and forth.   All the stages in this article just flow naturally to most people that have been role playing for a long while.   You just know when to pull out the die and roll initiative.  Trying to stage that a head of time, huge waste of time.

Which makes this a huge fluff piece in my opinion.  Something good for novice players and that's about it.  While I'm not invalidating the need for that kind of information.  I do see it as pointless information when it comes to releasing information about the actual play of WFRP 3.0.  This kind of article is applicable to most RPG's.   So you can assume away about my opinion.  But that doesn't sway it.  This article is just rehashing common sense to anyone that's played an RPG before, which I'm guess are the majority of people reading these articles and certainly partaking of the discussion.


Published: 10/13/2009 2:47:56 PM

superklaus said:

Additionally the rallly/ short rest mechanic is just ....nonsense. (as every roleplayer which is worth his salt knows after trying out this heretic DnD4) Either they introduced the rally phase, because they want to have a fresh full power party before the nex battle begins (like dnd4). Or they want to have a justification for additional cards and other "gaming tools". All in all, rally is NOT a good idea and is against good roleplaying.

I wonder why you are so eager to compare this to D&D. WFRP 3rd edition does not seem to be anything like D&D (of any edition). Just in case you don't know D&D 4th edition uses three different types of power: at-will, encounter and daily. From what we have heard thus far there are no "encounter" powers in WFRP 3rd edition. There seems to be once per session abilities (see races article) but you can find those in almost any RPG so I don't see what the complaint is.

Published: 10/13/2009 1:03:46 PM

So by story mode you mean the bits that used to be role playing before you guys replaced it all with Roll Playing. Sigh!

Also this aproach would be awsome for beginers. Shame that no one in the right mind drops $150+ on a new hobby that they have never tried. Not when they can Start D&D 4th ed for $40 -$60. Speaking as a Mrketing Student telling your loyal Veteran fan base to go jump and then trying to sell your game as an entry level product for oven double the cost is nothing but pure fail!

BTW I'm talking $AUS cause that what I'm dealing with.

Published: 10/13/2009 12:24:43 PM

The guys at FFG seem to play like they are in a movie. Well this is ok, but degenerates the rpg into a monodimensional experience. RPG is not a movie. It has much more elements than this article offers. A good roleplaying game should have some breaks and new beginnings but not like the above example in the article describe. In this its too fractured. No it should be played more fluently and not hacked that much in in scenes etc. I doubt that they had time to playtest this "storytelling" structure sufficiently.

Additionally the rallly/ short rest mechanic is just ....nonsense. (as every roleplayer which is worth his salt knows after trying out this heretic DnD4) Either they introduced the rally phase, because they want to have a fresh full power party before the nex battle begins (like dnd4). Or they want to have a justification for additional cards and other "gaming tools". All in all, rally is NOT a good idea and is against good roleplaying.

For learning HOW to roleplay good, I would advise to read the excellent "Robin Laws of Good Game Mastering". The best guide for "how-to-play-rpg" out there!


Published: 10/13/2009 12:23:03 PM

Honestly narrative games dosen't focus themselves on how dissecting scenes.

Published: 10/13/2009 11:40:48 AM

 Kryst... man, I don't know what to say. The Rally Step IS the Short Rest from D&D 4.0. You can close your eyes to it all you want.e.  It has its merits and flaws, but you can't really dispute its' there.  

Like others here before, you automatically assume you are the only one that really reads and understands the article. 

Stop condescending and actually contribute please. 

Published: 10/13/2009 8:32:23 AM

This one is really for some unexpirianced players. But still it nice to see this article even when it brings nothing new for me to the game.

Published: 10/13/2009 8:20:08 AM

The Comment

Act 1. Read the article.

Act 2. Hurriedly type something clever (possibly referencing how this looks like a cut'n paste from D&D4.0).

Act 3. Change of plans.  Scrap what you previously typed to type this.

Act 4. - Sorry there is no act 4!

Maybe I've just been gaming for to long to look at this objectively anymore.  It just reads as blah, blah, blah use common sense.


Published: 10/13/2009 3:22:32 AM

Useful advice for starting GMs. A lot of narrative focused games have advice sections like this, so nothing new here, but great for inexperienced players.

Published: 10/13/2009 2:55:48 AM

Parzival wrote:

Report "Seriously though this is roleplaying we're talking about not movies or the theater.

I sort of agree on this an it stressed my point; be carefull not to layout a play you want your adventurers to fit into. The actions of players are unpredictable, and they should be allowed to go of scope. You can make them feel more 'free' by offering several solutions to the problems/plots you describe in your campaigns/scenarios.

The build up with acts and changing between storytelling and encounters is ok as a skeleton. A way to structure the writing of a story like a scenario/campaign.

And after all I think Jay owes us a session demo video :-)=)


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